It seems teachers are not the only ones benefiting from the Sutherlands’ ideas! Using Agile in the home can help children become more independent and reduce stress for parents. Watch this great TED talk from Bruce Feiler.
Group work has always been a passion of mine. When I first became a teacher, I wanted my students to have the opportunity to learn and work together as much as possible; five years later, I still see the value of having heterogeneous groups of students learning to work with one another.
In our collaborative classroom, students have the opportunity to work with all types of ability levels and backgrounds, but our goal is to highlight and the value of working with diverse strengths.
We know that students can gain knowledge by working through projects and problems with their peers; however, students have to be taught how to effectively work together. There are some excellent frameworks out there, including Scrum and the Kagan Cooperative Learning, that help scaffold learning in groups.
I believe the teacher has to lay the foundation for group work and model what it looks like to work with others. As a co-teacher, I am fortunate to have ample opportunities for modeling, but that does not mean that modeling how to work with others is an unachievable goal for those without co-teachers. You just have to be proactive by reaching out to others and being open to the work that goes into collaboration.
In the past, I have been guilty of assigning group work without modeling how I want my students to collaborate. Now I realize that I have to model how to share the workload; this includes demonstrating how to work through conflict as well as helping students realize the potential of picking teams based on strengths. Never forget the power of your presence as a teacher. The teacher is the most influential person in the classroom. The students will mimic whatever the teacher does, and teachers have to show students how to work effectively together. It may not be a statewide goal, but it is a life skill.
“Never believe that you are better than anybody else, but remember that you are just as good.” -John Wooden
This quote by John Wooden is a great way to start engaging your students about what it means to be on a team. When we work with others, we really should be serving others instead of competing against one another. I try to teach my students that we all have our strengths and weaknesses, but what is most important is how we use our strengths to help others.
One way to help your students understand the importance of recognizing strengths is by teaching them students to pick their own groups. When you do so, encourage them to choose teammates based upon skills the group needs to succeed, instead of picking based upon friendship. Go through the group project expectations as a class and then discuss what types of skills would be needed in order to create the best project. Here’s an example of some of the questions we encourage our students to ask when picking groups:
Help your students realize that what makes us different can also make us stronger.
Over the last year, our team has adapted the Scrum framework to help our students work through class projects. In the classrooms where Scrum is used regularly, students have a deep understanding of what it means to collaborate and be part of a learning community. Teachers can plan complex projects, confident that students will rise to the challenge and present outstanding products to their classmates at the end of a few weeks. To us, Scrum makes perfect sense. And it is not too hard to implement with some guidance and coaching. However, getting started on your own can be tough, especially because most of us have never tried anything like it.
When talking about Scrum, we bandy about lots of unusual words to refer to the roles, artifacts, and ceremonies involved. Even those three make Scrum sound like a strange cult. Instead of suggesting books and articles, It might be useful to walk through an everyday, non-educational project in Scrum to give interested teachers a frame of reference. It might also be a good way to introduce Scrum to students in classrooms.
Let’s make a vegetable soup following an everyday workflow. Everyone knows how to make soup, right? What are the steps?
Generally, that’s how soup works. Of course, the stuff I put in my vegetable soup might not be exactly the same that you put in yours. How long the process takes depends on how many different ingredients I have to prepare before adding them to the soup. If I had to plan this down to the smallest detail, I’d have to expand the above steps to include everything.
Let’s see what a detailed plan for my soup might look like. I have to include every step to make sure I can give my guests a good idea of when we will sit down to eat our soup. Notice that these steps have a well-defined beginning and an end, and usually, will be easily managed in a predictable amount of time.
Mmm…The soup turned out really good. Too bad it took the whole day to make. Next time, I’ll try this with a team of friends (or maybe I’ll just coerce my children) and I will use a Scrum approach to make sure we can work together well. Let’s see how Scrum would help us get things done with three team members.
I’m going to leave the above as my plan and work from there. These 31 steps constitute our backlog. Each task is a story point. I’m going to break them into three sprints.
Let’s look at the first part of the list. Notice how items 2-11 depend on our list of ingredients and what we have on hand. The backlog likely did not have any of these items on it until after we, as a team, decided what to include in the soup and looked at what we had on hand and what was missing. If we had found everything in the refrigerator or pantry, we would not have groomed the backlog to include the trip to the store and the items to purchase.
Let’s go to the store with our shopping list. We will start with a standup meeting in the parking lot.
When we meet at the cash register, we will have another standup meeting.
At home, we might want to have another standup meeting to start our second sprint. We might divide the cleaning, peeling, and chopping based on personal preference and skill. We might choose to groom the backlog once again and add some herbs to to the ingredients. And luckily, we are a 1:1 cutting board and knife kitchen. We can work in parallel rather than in series. What might have taken a sole cook a full hour could take three cooks a third of the time or less. Awesome!!
As we are all working on our selected veggie story points, we have to be in constant communication to make sure our work meets our collective standard of quality. Are the potatoes chopped in small enough cubes? Are the carrots sliced thin enough? Should there be a bit more garlic? Does anyone need to have their knife sharpened? Are we keeping an eye on the pot to make sure it does not boil over? If I’m finished with my veggies, may I help someone else with theirs? We are working independently on our tasks, but we are working towards a common goal.
Even though the soup is being made in a single day during a single work session, we could structure this particular sprint to have a standup meeting before adding ingredients to the boiling water. Once things are in boiling water, it will be too late to chop anything finer or to wash something that might look like it needs cleaning. This is the time to make corrections. In this case, we are alone in the kitchen. We do not have a product owner who is outside the team. Still, our progress has to meet our quality standard and our definition of done.
Since this is a critical point in the soup-making process, we might want to have a product demo. If we were making this soup for anyone other than ourselves, our product owner would listen to what we had to say about the soup so far and examine the results. The team would answer questions, listen to feedback, and plan on correcting anything that was not to the product owner’s liking. Based on the feedback and required changes, we might need to groom our backlog to include missing ingredients or eliminate something that does not fit with the project.
What? Eliminate something? But we already washed, peeled, chopped the yellow squash!!
I know, I know… But we have realized one of our guests is allergic to yellow squash. Keeping it in our soup would be a terrible mistake. It is better to have noticed this small failure now, before we serve the soup. Reviewing the project often, identifying failure, and learning from it is a crucial part of Scrum. FLeRD will help us do better next time. Fail, Learn, Rethink, Do. We failed to ask if anyone was allergic to the ingredients. Now we have learned from our mistake. We rethink our process and add a step to check for allergies when we are making our list of ingredients. And that is how we will do it next time we make soup or any other recipe.
Now we move to the final sprint while the soup is cooking. We clean up, set the table, and get some bread ready. While this seems like a slow, easy sprint, it is crucial. We are getting ready to unveil our finished product. We must set the stage, know what we will say if anyone has questions, and be ready to accept feedback from our guests. We must also be ready to give and take feedback from our teammates.
Let’s have a final standup meeting.
How did the process go? I did not add the final kitchen cleanup to my backlog, but while we dry and put away the dishes, the team should have a retrospective. We must examine how the day went, from beginning to end. We must decide, from planning to serving, what went well and what could use some improvement. Reflecting upon the process and examining the results objectively is a good way to ensure future improvements.
Now that we have a point of reference for the artifacts and ceremonies of Scrum, we can bring this back into the classroom. We don’t usually make soup as a classroom project, but the essential steps for many classroom projects line up well with this example: Planning, gathering resources, executing, presenting, and reflecting. The essential elements of Scrum keep the project from ever going off the rails. The structure demands constant communication and prompt resolution of any conflict or difficulty.
Scrum may have its origins in the software development industry, but the idea of working towards a common goal without disruptive conflict applies to any context and any situation. If we have a recipe for teaching our students to work in teams, we should definitely make Scrum soup.
If you are new to Scrum and your students are having trouble keeping their backlogs full, here are some great tips to help your students better their backlogs.
Now that you know how to help your students monitor their backlog, your students will be more efficient and effective when completing their group projects.
We had a blast presenting Scrum at VCEC. Our updated slides are attached below!
In a classroom, group-work can be the bane of a teacher’s existence; often times, group work time can only mean one thing — organized chaos. We all have experienced the group project blues: One person seems to take over the whole project, while others are never doing their fair share of the workload. Group work can be frustrating.
However, teachers realize the importance of group work for students to learn how to work effectively together. Collaboration is a 21st century skill and most jobs require employees to work as a team in order to complete projects. Employers want to hire people with diverse skill sets and an understanding on how to share those skills collaboratively.
How can I help you?
In our collaborative classroom, students learn the importance of servant leadership. We recognize that we all learn differently and exhibit different abilities. However, we understand that the best way to work together is to serve one another. By asking, “How can I help you?” students are putting others first. If a teammate is facing a challenge while working on a project, the other teammates are expected to work together to help solve that challenge. Instead of ignoring the problem and continue working, we seek to serve one another.
At the start of each group work session, have your students ask each other what problems they are facing and how they can help? Stop five minutes early and have students reflect on what they have accomplished for the day. Are we still facing any obstacles? If so, how can I help?
Pick teams based on skill, not on friendship.
Another approach to a more collaborative classroom would be by having students select group members based on skill, instead of based on friendship. Students need to understand that a great team is a diverse team. We discuss at length the importance of picking partners that will compliment your team. For example, a baseball team is made up players with a diverse skill set. The pitchers can throw the fastest while the outfielders can hit the ball the farthest. No one wants a team full of pitchers. They may be able to strike out the other team, but they may never make it to first base. Students need to make sure that their team is not one dimensional. In our classroom, we recognize that everybody is good at something. Whether it would be research, writing, art, or coding, students need to be able to choose members that will ultimately help their team reach success.
Have students select their own teammates. Every time they select a teammate, have them defend why they chose that person. Guide students to choosing teammates based on the skills needed basing on the project.
How do you feel about group work?
We are at VSTE this week presenting on Scrum in the classroom. Joe could not be with us, but Jim and Bea showed this video in their session. The slides are not very different from the deck shared in our previous post.
As always, we would love to hear what you think and we would love to answer your questions, too.
Back in October we spent todays at the VMI STEM Conference. We had a really great time and promised the attendees to our session we would post our presentation PDF. Here it is. Better late than never…
We were recently recognized by ISTE for combining Scrum with Minecraft. See how you can incorporate Scrum, Minecraft and Literature Circles into your classroom. Check out the link below: